By I. Marsic
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Additional resources for Computer Networks - Performance and QOS
Buffering generally uses the fastest memory chips and circuits and, therefore, the most expensive memory, which means that the buffering space is scarce. Disk storage is cheap but not practical for packet buffering because it provides relatively slow data access. During network transit, different packets can take different routes to the destination, and thus arrive in a different order than sent. The receiver may temporarily store (buffer) the out-of-order packets until the missing packets arrive.
After all, the link to the receiver may be broken, or the receiver may be dead. There is no absolutely certain way to guarantee reliable transmission. Failed transmissions manifest themselves in two ways: • Packet error: Receiver receives the packet and discovers error via error control • Packet loss: Receiver never receives the packet (or fails to recognize it as such) If the former, the receiver can request retransmission. If the latter, the sender must detect the loss by the lack of response from the receiver within a given amount of time.
Without an acknowledgement, the sender window would never move forward and Ivan Marsic • Rutgers University 36 the communication would come to a halt. (Notice also that a packet can be retransmitted when its acknowledgement is delayed, so the timeout occurs before the acknowledgement arrives. ) Again, SR acknowledges only the last received (duplicate) packet, whereas GBN cumulatively acknowledges all the packets received up to and including the last one. In Figure 1-23(a), Ack-1 was lost, but when Ack-2 arrives it acknowledges all packets up to and including Pkt-2.
Computer Networks - Performance and QOS by I. Marsic