By Institute of Medicine, Board on Global Health, Forum on Microbial Threats, Alison Mack, David A. Relman, Eileen R. Choffnes
Years of utilizing, misusing, and overusing antibiotics and different antimicrobial medications has resulted in the emergence of multidrug-resistant 'superbugs.' The IOM's discussion board on Microbial Threats held a public workshop April 6-7 to debate the character and resources of drug-resistant pathogens, the results for worldwide well-being, and the innovations to reduce the present and destiny effect of those superbugs.
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Additional info for Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Health and Novel Intervention Strategies: Workshop Summary
730) with permission of the AVMA. 1 millions in 2008 = 47% increase • Continuous productivity increases before and after NTA stop. • Weaner daily weight gain decreased then increased after NTA stop. SOURCE: Schlundt (2010). Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Health and Novel Intervention Strategies: Workshop Summary 28 Antibiotic Resistance cleaning of housing, improved ventilation, later weaning, additional space for animal movement, as well as experimenting with feed quality and additives made up for the lack of routine antibiotics on most farms.
4 1,000,000 900,000 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 Number of infections due to multidrug-resistant bacteria FIGURE WO-10 Economic burden of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria: nomogram for in-hospital costs. eps bitmaps with some vector type & masks SOURCE: ECDC and EMEA (2009). , 2010). To control for confounding factors among patient populations that can be measured, researchers use regression or other statistical analyses of randomly sampled populations. Weinstein added, however, that some potential confounding factors cannot be measured.
The top three panels depict a schematic magnification of the bacterial cell wall. In Panel A, resistance to β-lactam antibiotics in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is caused by the production of a β-lactamase enzyme (penicillinase) and a low-affinity penicillinbinding protein (PBP) 2a. In Panel B, high-level resistance to glycopeptides is caused by the replacement of the last amino acid of peptidoglycan precursors (D-alanine [D-Ala] to D-lactate [D-Lac]). In Panel C, low-level resistance to glycopeptides is associated with increased synthesis of peptidoglycan, “trapping” the antibiotic in outer layers and preventing its interaction with precursors exiting the cytoplasm through the cell membrane.
Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Health and Novel Intervention Strategies: Workshop Summary by Institute of Medicine, Board on Global Health, Forum on Microbial Threats, Alison Mack, David A. Relman, Eileen R. Choffnes