By Thomas M. Schmitt
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M. Color Depending on the raw materials used and the process conditions, sulfonated products have colors ranging from light yellow to black. As a coarse test of product uniformity, a color test may be specified. There are many color scales in use. For sulfonates, the Gardner (42,43) or iodine (44,45) color are usually specified, although many other color scales are in use. A widely applied scale for slightly colored substances is the APHA, or platinum- cobalt scale (46-48). In general, color values can be converted from one scale to another mathematically or graphically, but the comparison is not exact since the shade, as well as the intensity, of the color standard varies from one scale to the other.
5-mL aliquots of CHC13. 5-mL methanol washes. The methanol solution is evaporated to dryness to expel CHC13, and the residue is redissolved in water or methanol. The HPLC system should be capable of ternary gradient operation and have a column compartment thermostatted at 35°C. Detection is by UV absorbance at 225 nm. 6 x 250 mm. 0 with NaOH. 0 mL/min. A linear gradient is used, beginning with 10:50:40 TBAHSO4/water/acetonitrile. During the first 30 min, ^O is lowered to 10%, increasing CH3CN to 80%.
Carefully evaporate down the washed extract and weigh. " "Combined fatty alcohol" is obtained by subtracting from this value the value for unsulfated material. 4. Free Alcohol Besides the extraction procedure described in Section II, unsulfated alcohol can be determined by TLC and by HPLC, as described below. In the special case of a mixture of alkyl sulfate and alkylarylsulfonate, unsulfated alcohol can be separated from unsulfonated alkylbenzenes by forming the urea adduct of the alcohol and separating by centrifugation (63).
Analysis Of Surfactant by Thomas M. Schmitt