By Richard J. Reid
Up-to-date and revised to stress long term views on present concerns dealing with the continent, the recent 2<sup>nd</sup> variation of A historical past of recent Africa recounts the total breadth of Africa's political, fiscal, and social heritage during the last centuries.
* Adopts a long term method of present concerns, stressing the significance of nineteenth-century and deeper indigenous dynamics in explaining Africa's later twentieth-century challenges
* areas a better specialize in African service provider, in particular in the course of the colonial encounter
* comprises extra in-depth assurance of non-Anglophone Africa
* bargains elevated insurance of the post-colonial period to take account of modern advancements, together with the clash in Darfur and the political unrest of 2011 in Egypt, Tunisia, and Libya
Read or Download A History of Modern Africa: 1800 to the Present (Blackwell Concise History of the Modern World) PDF
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Extra resources for A History of Modern Africa: 1800 to the Present (Blackwell Concise History of the Modern World)
Legitimate commerce was about the export of raw materials rather than finished products; the continent was never an equal partner in the global trading network. Three broad observations are worth making. Firstly, levels of personal freedom declined as domestic slavery increased, while labor both free and unfree was now harnessed to the export trade rather than internal development and diversification. Secondly, European imports – these included a dizzying array of goods, but the most important were cloth, sundry manufactures, alcohol, and guns – did little to strengthen indigenous economies and indeed in many respects weakened them over the longer term.
Gradually, but with increasing frequency in the second half of the century, European traders – sometimes with the official backing of their governments – began to penetrate beyond the coast into the hinterland in an effort to bypass middlemen and buy direct from producers. Often the most efficient means of doing so was by river, and thus did the Niger, navigable in places, become increasingly important to British commercial concerns. Combined with the anti-slave-trade activity noted above, all of this denoted ever greater European intervention in Atlantic African polity and economy, a process which formed the prelude to the actual partition of the region in the 1880s.
There was also heightened demand for slaves for the sugar and coffee plantations on the French islands in the Indian Ocean, and these plantations were expanding from the 1770s. In the early nineteenth century there was increasing demand from Brazil, as older sources declined along the Atlantic coastline and as plantations in Brazil itself expanded. Brazilian slave traders therefore began to make the longer journey from the southern Atlantic into the Indian Ocean, purchasing slaves from the region of Mozambique and the Zambezi valley.
A History of Modern Africa: 1800 to the Present (Blackwell Concise History of the Modern World) by Richard J. Reid