By Shields M. C.
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Additional resources for A Determination of the Ratio of the Specific Heats of Hydrogen at 18 and -190C
Very mild disodium PEG-5 laurylcitrate sulphosuccinate (in combination with sodium lauryl ethersulphate) serve for cosmetics produced by Witco as "Rewopol SB CS 50". The sulphosuccinate monoester surfactants are known as the following commercial products: (I) "Empimin MH/MK" (Albright & Wilson), "Rewopol SBF 12" (Witco), "Tensuccin" (IC1), "Texin 128 P" (Henkel), (II) "Anionyx 12 EO" (Onyx), "Emery 5320" (Emery), "Empicol SDD" (Albright & Wilson), "Genapol SBE" (Clariant), "Mackanate EL/L-2" (Mclntyre), "Preparat NMS-243" (DPO Sintez), "Rewopol SB FA 30" (Witco), "Setacin F/103" (Zschimmer & Schwarz), "Surfagene S 30" (Kao), "Texapon SB 3" (Henkel), (III) "Alconate CPA" (Witco), "Emery 5325" (Emery), "Mackanate CM-100/CP/OM/UM" (Mclntyre), "Rewoderm S 1333", "Rewopol SB L 203/SB C 212", "Rewocid SB U 185" (all of Witco), and many others.
For long-chain (C16 +) alcohols the reaction temperature should be somewhat higher than their melting point. 6 . 03 SO3 concentration, vol. % 3-5 Optimum reaction temperature, ~ 30-40 (C12-14) 60-65 (C16-18) Neutralisation step Just after sulphation Essentially the same mechanism and parameters are valid in the case of sulphation of alcohol ethoxylates. Among other impurities, 1,4-dioxane may be formed in alkylethoxysulphates when the ethoxylation degree m > 2 [62, 82]. The sulphation of alkylphenol ethoxylates requires a higher SO3/ethoxylate ratio due to the accompanying sulphonation into aromatic rings.
In the final step other factors may affect the conversion, such as thinning of the reaction mixture and the presence of final products (ether propanesulphonate) seemingly acting as a phase-transfer catalyst. Another root for the ether sulphonate synthesis is known for a long time to be 1,3propane sultone but it has lesser usage in view of higher prices and carcinogenic properties. Ether sulphonates are insensitive to Ca ++ ions and water salinity, they are hydrolytically stable, skin-friendly surfactants that are of interest for tertiary oil recovery, cosmetics and chemical specialities [22c, 80].
A Determination of the Ratio of the Specific Heats of Hydrogen at 18 and -190C by Shields M. C.